Moment Magnitude Scale

The Moment Magnitude Scale (abbreviated as MMS, denoted, as MW) is a rating system used by seismologists to calculate the size of an earthquake. The scale rates the earthquake in terms of the total energy let off by the quake.  The Moment Magnitude Scale can be used to rate any quake of every size in close proximity or far away. In order to classify a quake scientists must first study that data gathered from the seismographs. The data produced is then used to rate the earthquake.

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The epicenter of an earthquake is located directly above the focus. Since it is right on top the hypocenter, it is usually the area that suffers the most damage.

Seismologists find an earthquakes epicenter by using the seismic waves that the earthquake released. The difference between the times that the P and S waves reach the seismograph will determine the distance between it and the epicenter. The longer it takes for the waves to arrive the grater the distance.

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A fault is crack where chunks of the Earth’s crust on both sides have cracked and have been displaced. Most happen along plate boundaries. There are three major types of faults normal, reverse, and strike- slip faults. Normal faults occur when tension in the crust tears the rock apart thus creating a normal fault. The fault is tilted so that one chunk sits above and the other sits under the fault. The one situated on top is called the hanging wall while the other on the bottom is the foot wall. Reverse fault tend to occur where the crust is squeezed together the pressure causes the faults to form. Apart from the direction of the crust movement reverse and normal faults have an identical structure. The scraping of plates as the travel past each other makes strike- slip faults.

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Seismic Waves

Seismic waves are vibrations that travel through the Earth carrying energy released during an earthquake. The waves transport the energy from the focus. They traverse through the interior of the Earth and across its surface. There are three main types of Seismic waves, which occur in the given order P waves, S waves, and Surface waves. P waves or primary waves occur before the others, in other words they are the first waves that happen. P waves push and pull the earth and the crust vibrates back and forth, back and forth. S waves or Secondary waves follow P waves. Unlike primary waves S waves not only move the crust back and forth but in all directions as well, also S waves can only go through solids while P waves can go through both solids and liquids. Surface waves may occur when P and S waves breech the surface. Surface waves travel slower than the other two waves. Surface waves have been known to create tremendous ground movements. Some surface waves tend to cause the ground to roll in a way that is not unlike the motion of a wave while other Surface shake buildings side to side like a rag doll.

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The Pacific Ring of Fire

The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions happen. They occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean in a 25,000 mile shape not unlike that of a horseshoe with a nearly a continuous line of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs and plate movements. The Ring of Fire consists of 452 volcanoes and 75% of the earth’s active and dormant volcanoes.

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Christchurch’s Tsunami

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in Hawaii issued a warning that a tsunami had been generated as a result of the Christchurch quake, but the warning was dropped around an hour after it was given even though an tsunami had indeed been created. The reason for the cancellation was that fact that is was “some tsunami”. It was later reported that the waves, more like ripples, were about a “terrifying” eight inches (twenty centimeters) tall.

The Pacific warning center was not the only one issuing warnings. The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Center also sent an alert for eastern Austrialia which was also canceled.

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Hello world!

Hey, My name is Allana and this blog is my 4 quarter exhibition project. Before I continue I should tell you a little bit about my school so have a better understanding. First always expect the unexpected,  you see I attend Lawton Chiles Preparatory School for the gifted and talented. Now LCPS isn’t your typical high school, our principal Christine Ortiz ( don’t ever call her that she HATES it. Christine is like our mum to the point she calls out in a crowded university “who has to go potty” talk about embarrassing and I’m only 14 think about the 17 and 18 yr old’s) had a crazy idea and that idea was our school, our family. Our School really small which is great except the students (including me )double as maids. But I degrees, back to the whole website thing. Right so ever quarter has a theme and all our work during that quarter is based on the theme. Then towards the end of the semester we have two final projects (sorta like a grand finely) one is based on the theme and the other is based on something of academic interest to you. This Quarter is a little different (not that they are ever normal) we are combining the two together which resulted in this, my website. Now I can FINALLY get down to business. As you know this quarter’s theme is earthquakes so one would infer that this blog is about earthquakes and you wold be correct.

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